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130 Production Steps to Recreate a Tibetan Book

1.  Lama of TNMC Tarthang Rinpoche develops plans to support studies in the Tibetan shedras in exile and in Tib. Support for Shedras
Head et.

2. Review of Resources
As plans develop, texts in the Yeshe De libraries are reviewed to determine which titles are available.

3. Editorial Selection
Based on the over-all plan, Rinpoche selects specific titles for each year's text production schedule.

4. Acquisitions
Required texts that are not in Yeshe De libraries are located in other libraries and monasteries around the world.

5. New Texts Received
New texts from libraries and monasteries arrive as Xerox, film, fiche, or computerized scans, and texts are catalogued. Stages of Production

6. Review of New Texts
New texts are printed out for review by Rinpoche to determine what will be included in production.

7. Text Organization
Rinpoche organizes text titles to create groups of preliminary volumes to consider for production.

8. Production Projections
Short range and long range projections are made in terms of the required time, money, equipment, and staffing.Printing Presses at Dharma Publishing

9. Computerizing
Information on texts, authors, folios, and subject matter is compiled in computer format.

10. Review of Materials
Inventories of existing materials are prepared and materials required for new volumes are calculated.

11. Purchasing Plans
Plans for large materials purchases are prepared, verifying prices, price breaks, manufacture, and delivery times.

12. Preparing Budgets
Budgets for materials and monthly cash flow requirements are determined and reworked monthly.

13. Planning Funding
Funding in specific amounts from our sister organizations is requested and monthly pledges agreed upon.

14. Regular Financial
Verifying and paying of invoices on regular monthly basis; categorizing all income and expenses.

15. Organizing Inputting
Lists of texts to be input are organized.  Inputting stays one year or more ahead of production if possible.

16. Inputting Sources
Source volumes from Yeshe De libraries or new acquisitions are located and marked for Xeroxing.

17. Xeroxing Texts
Selected texts are reproduced by laser xerography, using filters and enlargements to enhance readability.

18. Program Installing
Custom-designed programs for inputting and typesetting in Tibetan require 5 years to develop and ongoing maintenance.

19. Setting Up Inputting
Xeroxes of each text are organized into a job made up of 50-folio files. Record keeping is established for each job.

20. Daily Inputting
A small team of inputters plans the work, usually at the rate of 50 folios or more per day per person.

21. File Checking
Each 50-folio file is run through a series of checking programs to locate and correct common typing errors.

22. File Compare
After each file is input twice the two inputs are compared to locate differences that show typing or reading errors.

23. Corrected Proofs
Differences are checked to the original and corrections entered. Proofs are printed and corrections are rechecked.

24. Organizing Proofs
Proofs for each text are boxed, labeled and shelved. Reports from checking programs are included.

25. Proofreading
Each text is assigned to a proofreader who corrects thirty different types of mistakes. Queries are marked for further checking.

26. Correction Input 1
Corrections marked by the proofreader are input into the file. Uncertain corrections are marked for rechecking.

27. Proof Printing
Corrected proofs are printed out again, with revised notations for date and stage of production.

28. Correction Check
Each correction is located on both sets of proofs and checked. Corrections are made and pages reprinted.

29. Proofreading 2
A second round of proofreading makes additional corrections. Shads are checked and corrected.

30. Correction Input 2
Corrections are input into the file again, and a series of checking programs for grammar and spelling are run.

31. Proof Printing
Another corrected proof is printed out and newest corrections are checked. Correction cycles may repeat as needed.

32. Queries Checked
Queries from inputting, file compare, and proofreading are checked by Rinpoche, who may consult various editions.

33. Final Review
Rinpoche reviews the final proofs and composes verses for the publisher colophon for each large text.

34. Assembling Volumes
Rinpoche assembles and orders a series of completed texts into a volume for production.Volunteers printing the Tibetan Books

35. Volume Design
Rinpoche decides design of the volume: large pothi for Sutra, smaller pothi for Shastra, or western.

36. Tibetan Style Step 1
Pothi-style books are created with a custom designed computer program that fits lines of type into borders.

37. Tibetan Style Step 2
The title page designed by Rinpoche is created with Tibetan script and scanned images of lantsa script to fit the opening page.

38. Tibetan Style Step 3
Art boxes are added to page two and three following traditional pothi style. Captions are composed and added to the program.

39. Tibetan Style Step 4
Running heads are composed and folio numbers are added to each page.

40. Tibetan Style Step 5
The remaining text pages are designed with a five-line format using smaller type and less line space.

41. Tibetan Style Step 6
After text files are put into the program, each page is checked to find and move short syllables left at beginnings and ends of pages.

42. Tibetan Style Step 7
Extra spacing is added around chapters, sections, final prayers, and colophons. sBrul shads might be added as well.

43. Tibetan Style Step 8
A stupa is added to the final page and the end of text is adjusted to fit around the stupa image.

44. Tibetan Style Step 9
Final pages are printed out and checked by eye for good spacing between shads and short syllables.

45. Tibetan Style Step 10
Final pages are reviewed by Rinpoche before sending to the press for printing. New corrections may be added at this stage.

46. Western Style Step 1
To create western pages, additional page-making programs are required, which staff learns to use.

47. Western Style Step 2
Tibetan files are formatted with extra spacing to mark out main topics and with centered lines to mark out verses and quotations.

48. Western Style Step 3
Special formatting is needed for sa-bcad, outlines, and indices to show topics and each one's page number.

49. Western Style Step 4
Formatting is checked for accuracy, to align type nicely on each page. Small words are moved from beginning and ends of pages

50. Western Style Step 5
A dKar-chag Table of Contents is added to list chapters of a text or a series of texts in the volume.

51. Western Style Step 6
Front matter pages are created including volume title page that indicates the category to which the texts belong.

52. Western Style Step 7
Final prayers, colophon, and stupa with a caption are added at the end of the text in the final pages of the volume.

53. Western Style Step 8
Opening pages for each text in a volume are created with 2-color ornamental borders ready to add line drawings.

54. Western Style Step 9
Final pages are printed out and checked for a variety of errors. Rinpoche reviews the completed volumes

55. Line Art Selection
Rinpoche selects art depicting authors or lineage holders and composes a caption for each drawing.

56. Line Drawings
Line drawings of Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, Arhats, Deities, and masters are prepared under Rinpoche's direction.

57. Art Organization
Line drawings are organized according to type of image and chronology of masters and archived for ease of access.

58. Thanka Selection
Rinpoche chooses a thanka for each volume suitable to the content, and composes a Tibetan caption.

59. Kanjur Thankas
Kanjur volumes may include additional thankas to introduce individual texts.

60. Thanka Organization
Selected thankas are organized by volume for large Kanjur collections such as Ratnakuta or Prajnaparamita Sutras.Assembling the recreated Tibetan books.

61. Scanning Art
Selected line drawings are scanned, enhanced, and cropped to fit in the text art boxes depending on volume style.

62. Thanka Scanning
Thankas are scanned, optimizing and adjusting the color, and then cropped to fit in text art boxes depending on volume style.  Scanned images are print and checking the printing Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, and lineage holders to open each Sutra and Shastra volume. requirements.

64. Stupa Art
Stupas for the final page of each large text are chosen from a large collection of drawings created under the supervision of Rinpoche.

65. Ornamental Folio
Rinpoche designs a special folio with images

63. Thanka Proofs
Edit in color for verification of organization

66. Inside Cover Design
Rinpoche creates ornamental art and lantsa script for the inside front pothi cover, and a stupa and dedication verse for the back.

67. Pothi Cover Design
To ornament the pothi volume cover, Rinpoche creates a design which is gold-stamped onto red boards.

68. Western Cover Design
Rinpoche creates new Western style volume cover designs with book spine type announcing titles and authors.

69. Cover Typesetting
Composing the type and art to fit the cover exactly requires many hours of computer time.

70. Cover Dies
Cover type and art is sent to die manufacturer to create magnesium dies used to stamp covers for pothi and western volumes.

71. Lantsa Preparation
A large collection of Sanskrit letters in lantsa script has been created by Yeshe De Project over many years.

72. Lantsa Scanning
Selected text titles are composed in lantsa script and scanned. Images are added to title pages.

73. Printing Proofs
After all art and lantsa are added to the volume, final proofs are printed out and checked before sending to press.

74. Dongtar
For pothi-style volumes, Rinpoche creates a table of contents card that is attached to the finished volume. Text titles are typeset to fit the card.

75. Plating Techniques
Until 2003, we used pyrofax plating for black and white text, and camera and conventional film to prepare color images.

76. Pyrofax Imposition
Using pyrofax method, folios of the final proof are pasted up on boards and art and lantsa are added to the hard copy.

77. Pyrofax Plating
Final copy is registered to copy board and photographed with pyro film. Image is transferred from film to transmat to plate.

78. Computer-to-Plate
Since 2003, we have been using CTP technology to make plates directly from computer files without film.

79. Equipment Purchase
Detailed research was required to obtain suitable CTP equipment. Machine set-up required many months to accommodate our complex book design.

80. Compatible Systems
Typesetting computers and new plating computers are set up to guarantee compatibility between systems

81. Files for Press
Computer files of text ready to print are sent by disk or electronically to the plating department.

82. Final Files Check
Plating department checks the text files to be sure all pages are in order and all scans in place.

83. Imposition Guide
A guide is created to show where to place folios on the large sheet of paper that will be printed and folded into signatures.

84. Imposition Check
Computer program assists in placing folios in order for each plate. Operator checks the sequence.

85. CTP Plating
The image of folios laid out on each sheet is sent electronically to the plate-making machine that burns the image into metal plate.

86. Washing Plate
After the plate is burned, it is washed, dried, and checked carefully. Final proofs are on hand to go with the plate to the press.

87. Planning Print Runs
Rinpoche decides how many copies of each volume to print.  Sutras and most shastras are 8,000 to distribute widely to all schools.

88. Printing Department
For 2006, we purchased another press so that three presses are now working 24 hours a day and a fourth runs part-time.

89. Printing Shastras
A two-color Heidelberg press prints the shastra commentaries on lightweight 40-pound text paper using black ink.

90. Printing Sutras
A Heidelberg perfecting press prints the larger format Kanjur Sutra texts on 40-pound paper using custom copper ink.

91. Western Volumes
Western volumes are printed on the perfector presses and also on the two-color presses.

92. Printing Color
Four-color work, including the thanka folios for the Kanjur and the dongtar table of contents cards, are usually printed on the two-color press.

93. Printing Step 1
The plate is set into the press and attached to the plate cylinder via the plate clamp carefully by hand

94. Printing Step 2
Stacks of paper are set up to feed into the press at the rate of 8,000 per hour.Printing Tibetan books

95. Printing Step 3
Ink is adjusted for color and density and smoothness of paper feeding is tested by running make ready sheets.

96. Printing Step 4
When set-up is complete, 8,000 copies of the sheet are printed from the plate in succession.

97. Printing Step 5
The printed plate is removed by hand and the next plate is attached to the plate cylinder.

98. Printing Step 6
For color printing, adjustments are made to the flow of four fountains of ink to obtain the desired colors.

99. Printing Step 7
Perfector press prints both sides of the sheet in a single pass and so doubles the output of a given length of printing time.

100. Printing Step 8
Printed sheets are stacked onto skids to dry. Unperfected sheets run through the press a second time to print the other side.

101. Printing Step 9
Skids of stacked paper printed on both sides are now ready to fold.

102. Folder Purchase
An additional folder was purchased for 2006 so that Tibetan style and western style books could be folded at the same time.

103. Folding Text
Printed sheets are run through two-stage folders to create 16-page, 24-page, or 32-page signatures.

104. Small Folder
Western volume thankas printed in small signatures of 4 pages are folded on a much smaller folder.

105. Trucking
Several times each week 10-11 skids of printed text are trucked 100 miles from printing facility to bindery facility.Trucks carrying materials and reprinted Tibetan books.

106. Loading & Unloading fork-lifting the skids into and out of the truck before and after its run takes several hours for each load.

107. Warehousing
The 20 or more skids of paper printed weekly need constant rearrangement to keep the press and bindery clear for work.

108. Collating Text
Signatures are set by hand into the pockets of an automated collator that gathers them together into large batches.

109. Marrying Text
Batches of signatures that make up each volume are then married together to complete the book.

110. Check Books
Married books are checked to be sure all the signatures are in the proper order.

111. Cutting Books
Married texts are then fed through the automated cutter that trims the signatures on all four sides.

112. Edge-dyeing Books
Batches of books are inserted into a rack with cut edges exposed so red dye can be applied with sponges.

113. Shastra Covers
Covers for Shastras are printed on cardstock in red, peach, and gold ink and the sheets cut into individual covers.

114. Covers for Sutras
Kanjur Sutra covers are produced by laminating two matte boards of different colors together with hot glue.

115. Gold-Stamping
The front cover design is foil stamped using a custom made die and a ten-ton stamper.

121. Boxing Sets
Sets of collated books are inserted into sturdy cardboard boxes with labels specially prepared for Indian customs.Boxing the Tibetan books for distribution.

122. Loading Container
Boxes of books are strapped to skids that are loaded into 20-foot or 40- foot long shipping containers to truck to the port.

123. Shipping
Months in advance we negotiate with shipping companies to get the best possible price for our shipment to India.

124. Coordinating
Following up on the final stages of production in the bindery to loading containers in time to get on the ship takes hours every day.

125. Documentation
When containers are loaded, paperwork is carefully prepared and verified so that books are allowed through Indian customs.

126. Distribution Plan
Rinpoche creates an overall plan for book distribution to monasteries and individuals depending on the types of texts prepared.

127. Customs Plan
Research in customs regulations over fifteen years has made it possible to bring large amounts of books into India.

128. Travel arrangements
Tickets and travel plans are made for the Yeshe De staff that attended the Monlam to distribute the books.

129. Registration
Once at Bodh Gaya, our team makes announcements and signs up monasteries and centers to receiveMonks distributing recreated Tibetan books.books.

130. Distributing Books
Hundreds of skids are organized in rows to facilitate actual distribution of boxes of books to more than 3300 centers